OWB: Add Project Tasks and Assign Resources

Tasks are the work items in your CA Open Workbench (OWB) project. During the project planning process, you define the tasks that are required to complete and accomplish the objectives of the project. In OWB, the project tasks are organized according to a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). The default WBS for Open Workbench includes the following hierarchical levels:
ccppmod153
Tasks are the work items in your CA Open Workbench (OWB) project. During the project planning process, you define the tasks that are required to complete and accomplish the objectives of the project. In OWB, the project tasks are organized according to a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). The default WBS for Open Workbench includes the following hierarchical levels:
  • Phase
  • Activity
  • Task or Milestone
You can change the labels that are used to identify your WBS levels.
Phases are the major steps that are required to achieve the project's goal. Most well-defined projects have multiple phases with specific objectives. Within each phase, there are a number of activities leading to the completion of the phase's objectives. You can further divide each activity into tasks and milestones. A
task
is the smallest identifiable project component. A
milestone
marks significant events or dates that are used to measure the progress of a project.
Only the memory and disk space on your computer limit the number of tasks that you can add to a project or WBS.
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Insert New Project Tasks in Open Workbench
Several methods are available to create project tasks in Open Workbench (OWB) on new and existing projects, move tasks around in projects, and delete tasks. At a minimum, you can add tasks and can define some of their properties directly in a spreadsheet view, depending on the task-specific field names the view displays. Or, you can add tasks and can define their properties in the
Task Properties
dialog. To view the
Task Properties
dialog, right-click any task row and click
Modify
in the shortcut menu.
The
Task Properties
dialog consists of the following tabs:
General
,
Scheduling
,
Dependencies
,
Advanced
, and
Notes
. The tabs that are available in this dialog depend on whether you are creating a phase or activity, a task, or a milestone.
  • If you select a phase or activity that is part of a master project or a subproject, only the
    General
    ,
    Advanced
    , and
    Notes
    tabs display.
  • If you select a task or milestone that is part of a master project or a subproject, all tabs except the
    Subprojects
    tab display.
  • If you select a single task that was inserted into a master project as a subproject, all of the tabs display, including the
    Subprojects
    tab.
You can add tasks to your project directly in a spreadsheet view, such as the Gantt Chart view.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open a view that displays the task detail pane.
  2. Right-click in a row above which you want to create your task, and click
    Insert Task
    in the shortcut menu.
  3. If the view displays task-specific columns, click in the cells of the new task to enter task-related data. You can also right-click the new task row and click
    Modify
    in the shortcut menu.
Shift Tasks
You can manually change a task schedule by dragging its Gantt bars to a new position. When you move Gantt bars, a pop-up window displays the new dates. The task start and finish dates change to reflect its new position in the Gantt. Changes that you make to the start and finish dates automatically update the task's start and finish dates. To view this information, open the
General
tab on the
Task Properties
dialog.
Shifting Task Start and Finish Dates Interactively (Gantt Chart)
  • You can shift the start or finish dates, extending the task duration relative to the surrounding time frame.
  • You can shift the entire task to a new position relative to the surrounding time frame, keeping the task duration intact.
Shifting Task Notes
  • Dependency relationships may affect your ability to change the task start and finish dates, and their duration.
  • You can shift only one task at a time.
  • You cannot:
    • Shift tasks if you have selected the
      Freeze Gantt Bars
      check box in the
      Gantt
      dialog.
    • Move completed tasks.
    • Set the start dates of tasks to begin after the start date of their resource assignments. A task's start date can only be before or on the assignment start date.
    • Set the finish date of tasks to end before the finish date of their resource assignments. A task's finish date can only be on or after the last assignment date.
    • Change the end date of a variable-duration task to a date later than the end date of the last end date of the assignments, regardless of the loading pattern. You can, however, change the end date on fixed-duration tasks.
    • Change the start and finish dates of variable-duration tasks that have resource assignments with ETC. Instead, you can move these tasks.
    • Change the start date of tasks that have actuals entered against them, unless the task is of a fixed duration and the start date is earlier than the earliest actuals entered.
    • Set task durations longer than the recalculated duration if the variable tasks have resource assignments with ETC. However, you can drag Gantt bars to new positions on the Gantt chart, changing task start and finish dates.
Change Task Location in Project WBS
After you create a project task, you can change its position in a spreadsheet view that displays the task detail pane, such as the Gantt Chart view.
If you move a task to an empty location that is within a subproject or after the last line of a subproject, the task becomes part of that subproject.
Follow these steps:
  1. Click the header for the task you want to change location to select the task, and then click the selected row and hold the mouse button.
  2. Drag the task to the new location in the view, and release the mouse button.
Establish Task and Resource Constraints
During the planning process, you can establish and fine-tune task durations for all project tasks to obtain an acceptable total project duration. You can create tasks with either fixed or variable durations, sometimes referred to as time-constrained and resource-constrained tasks, respectively. For example, a meeting task is time-constrained rather than resource-constrained. Use the
General
tab on the
Task Properties
dialog to define duration of a task.
Autoschedule handles the following task duration types differently:
  • Fixed Duration. A
    fixed duration
    task is a constrained task that must finish in a specific amount of time. Fixed-duration tasks are constant and are not driven by resource assignments. A fixed-duration task is also referred to as a time-constrained task. When you autoschedule, the length of the task is not changed on the project.
  • Variable Duration. A
    variable duration
    task is a constrained task that can change when you autoschedule your project. Variable-duration tasks depend on the availability and the number of assigned resources. A variable-duration task is also referred to as a resource-constrained task. When you autoschedule, the length of the task is adjusted around the assigned resource's remaining availability, loading patterns, and maximum percent loading.
Edit Tasks in Open Workbench
You can select more than one task or resource to edit properties as a group. You can apply common properties or change properties for a selected group of tasks simultaneously, without having to open each task and edit properties.
Use the
Task Properties - Multiple Selections
dialog to edit multiple tasks. To view this dialog, from a view that displays the task detail pane, select the tasks you want to edit, right-click, and click
Modify
.
Use the
Task Properties
dialog to define or update task properties. To view this dialog, double-click the header button to the left of the task you want to update. Use the different tabs on this dialog to create and edit data that you may not find available in a view.
You can also update a task by right-clicking it in a spreadsheet view to access the shortcut menu which displays a list of task-related commands. You can edit subproject task properties if you have Read/Write access or if you save a master project as an Open Workbench project (.rmp) file. You can also select multiple tasks to define or to edit the common properties using the
Task Properties - Multiple Selections
dialog.
The properties that are displayed on the tabs on the
Task Properties - Multiple Selections
dialog are those that have the same entry or setting for all of the tasks you have selected. If a field is editable, but the selected tasks do not have the same entry or setting, the field displays blank. When you enter values in blank fields, the values for those fields change for all of the selected tasks. Non-editable fields are disabled. Check boxes appear disabled and selected if the selected tasks have different settings.
The tabs and fields on this dialog are the same as those on the
Task Properties
dialog, except the changes you make apply to all of the selected tasks.
Rules for Editing Multiple Tasks
  • You cannot insert new tasks from this dialog.
  • If any of the selected tasks are subproject tasks, you cannot change the task properties.
  • If you select detailed tasks and summary tasks together, those tabs not applicable to summary tasks, such as the
    Dependencies
    and
    Resources
    tabs do not display.
  • When entering a value in a field for which the value must be unique, the first selected task assumes the entered value, and subsequent tasks assume unique incremental numbers. For example, if you enter an ID of ENG while editing a group of three tasks, Task 1 is given ENG as its ID, Task 2 an ID of ENG-0, and Task 3 an ID of ENG-1.
  • Some advanced properties are disabled because the value is not common to all selected tasks.
Use the
General
tab on the
Task Properties
dialog to define the basic attributes of a task, and to identify the task as a key task on the project. You can also use this tab to apply properties to more than one task.
The following task schedules are displayed on this tab:
  • Current. The values that are displayed are the current values when calculating the critical path.
  • Baseline. The values that are displayed are automatically generated during project baselining and are read-only.
  • Early. The values that are displayed are automatically generated when you autoschedule your project and they are read-only. An early schedule indicates the earliest a task can be completed, based on all the dependencies and constraints.
  • Late. The values that are displayed are automatically generated when you autoschedule your project and they are read-only. A late schedule indicates the latest a task can be completed, based on all the dependencies and constraints.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open a view that displays the task detail pane.
  2. Select one or more tasks.
  3. Right-click the task that you want to define, and click
    Modify
    in the shortcut menu.
  4. Complete the fields. The following fields require explanation:
    • Category
      Defines the name of the group or class to which this task belongs.
    • Type
      Defines the task type.
      Values:
      Milestone, Task, Phase, Activity
      Default:
      Task
    • Key Task (Type)
      Specifies whether the task is essential to the project and if it is a key task. When you mark a task as a key task, the task is listed on the
      Key Tasks
      tab on the
      Project Properties
      dialog. You can always revert tasks to standard tasks.
    • Duration
      Defines the length of time, in number of business days that the task (if this task is fixed) takes to complete.
      Values:
      1 through 20,863.
    • Fixed (Duration)
      Specifies whether the task duration is fixed or variable.
      Default:
      Cleared (Variable)
    • Priority
      Defines the task priority or priority inheritance if the task does not inherit the priority from parent or any higher WBS level.
      Default:
      10 if the parent task priority or any higher WBS level has not been set.
      Values:
      0 through 36. The lower the number, the higher the priority.
      For example, if the task has a priority of 0 through 9, it is given the highest priority during scheduling. If the task has a priority of 11 through 36, it is given the lowest priority during scheduling.
    • Inherited (Priority)
      Specifies whether you want this task to assume the priority of its parent task, or the next highest WBS level. When selected, the
      Priority
      field is not available.
      Default:
      Selected
  5. Complete the fields. The following fields require explanation:
    • Start
      Defines the task start date for the current schedule.
      Default:
      Today's date or the next business date after today's date.
    • Finish
      Defines the task finish date for the current schedule.
      Note:
      If you do not enter a finish date, Open Workbench calculates the date based on the tasks duration and start date.
    • Status
      Defines the task completion status.
      Values:
      Not Started, Started, or Completed
      Default:
      Started
    • % Complete
      Defines the progress of the task as a percentage. Regardless of the setting for the
      % Complete Calculation Method
      on the
      Description
      tab of the
      Project Properties
      dialog, you can always edit the percent complete value for any milestone tasks. This value can also be used in the earned value calculations.
      • If
        % Complete Calculation Method
        is set to
        Manual
        , you can edit this field for the project and for all summary and detail tasks. The status of a summary level task changes only if either the status or the
        % Complete
        value is manually modified.
      • If
        % Complete Calculation Method
        is set to
        Effort
        , the value in this field is automatically calculated for the project and for all summary and detail tasks.
      • If
        % Complete Calculation Method
        is set to
        Duration
        , the value in this field is automatically calculated for the project and summary tasks based on the values manually entered for the detail tasks.
      Values:
      0 through 100.
  6. Click
    OK
    .
Task Duration
Duration is the length of time, in business days, a task requires from conception to completion, including the start and finish dates. You can change the task duration using different ways. You can edit it directly on the desired position on the timescale in a spreadsheet view, such as the Gantt view, by clicking and dragging the left or right side of the Gantt bar to the desired position on the timescale. You can also use the
General
tab on the
Task Properties
dialog to edit task duration.
When you add tasks to a project, the task's default start date is today's date, or the next working date after today's date if today is a holiday or a non-work day.
The maximum duration you can define can extend from present day to June 3, 2079. The duration for variable-duration tasks is automatically calculated. For fixed-duration tasks, the application automatically calculates the task's finish date. If the task is fixed and you change the finish date, the duration is automatically calculated.
During autoschedule, the duration is not changed for fixed-duration tasks, except when you enter an autoschedule start date that is greater than the task finish date. In this case, ETC is moved for resources and roles to start from the autoschedule start date and is spread to the task finish date, depending on the loading pattern. If the autoschedule start date is greater than the task finish date, then the finish date is moved to the autoschedule start date, and all ETC is placed on that date.
  1. Right-click the task, and click
    Modify
    in the shortcut menu.
  2. Complete the
    Duration
    field and the
    Fixed
    check box.
Task Priority
The
task priority
controls the order in which tasks are scheduled during autoschedule, subject to dependencies and task and resources constraints. Autoschedule, therefore, schedules tasks with higher priority ahead of tasks with lower priority. The priority value you enter in the
Priority
field is used when scheduling task.
If you do not define the task priority but instead select the
Inherited
(Priority) check box on this tab, the priority is inherited from its parent task or the next highest WBS level. By default, this check box is selected.
Task Status and Percent Complete
You can update the status of a task by setting the values in the
Status
and
% Complete
fields in the task properties. Depending on the setting for the
% Complete Calculation Method
on the
Description
tab of the
Project Properties
dialog, you can edit or automatically populate the
% Complete
field.
You can also define the task status by editing the task in a view that has the following data elements on its layout:
Status
,
Start
,
Finish
, and
Percent (%) Complete
.
When updating the task status, the following rules apply:
  • You can enter 100 as the
    % Complete
    value for tasks with a status of
    Started
    .
  • You can only mark tasks as
    Completed
    if the resource assigned to the task has no remaining ETC on the task.
  • If you change the status of the task to
    Completed
    , the
    % Complete
    field automatically updates to 100. If you then reduce the
    % Complete
    value, the status changes to
    Started
    .
  • If the task is a milestone, you can select the status as 
    Completed
    or
    Not Started
    .
  • If the task has an ETC greater than zero or has actuals but it has not started, you cannot change the status to
    Not Started
    unless you first remove the ETC and actuals from the task.
  • If the task has an ETC greater than zero, you cannot select a status as 
    Completed
    .
Delete Tasks
You can delete a task from your project manually in the view, such as the Gantt Chart view. To delete the task, right-click the task, and click
Delete Task
in the shortcut menu.
Define the Resource Properties
Use the
Resources
tab on the
Task Properties
dialog to define the assigned resource actual usage, ETC, and maximum percentage on tasks.
Use the
Resources
tab to:
Define Resource Actual Usage on Tasks
If you previously recorded resource periodic actual usage, you cannot change the total actual usage directly in a view.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open a view that displays the task detail pane.
  2. Right-click a task and click
    Assignments
    from the shortcut menu.
  3. Select the name of the resource for which you want to record total actual usage in the
    Assigned Resources
    grid.
  4. Complete the following fields to update the resource detail section of the view to reflect the resource's actual usage on the task:
    • Actual
      Defines the cumulative actual usage.
    • Act Thru
      Defines the last date through which actuals have been captured on the task for the resource.
  5. Click
    OK
    .
Remove Resource Actual Usage on Tasks
Use the following procedure to remove actuals for a specific resource that is assigned to a task. You can also use this procedure if you are using Open Workbench with
Clarity PPM
 and if the resource track mode, the method of time capture, is set to none in
Clarity PPM
.
For more information, see
Resource Management.
You can remove actuals or you can convert any actual usage that has been recorded after the date back to ETC usage.
Follow these steps:
  1. Right-click a task in the view and click
    Assignments
    .
  2. Complete one of the following steps in the
    Assigned Resources
    grid:
    • Clear the
      Act Thru
      date to remove all actuals.
    • Change the
      Act Thru
      date to an earlier date to convert any actual usage that has been recorded after the date back to ETC usage.
  3. Click
    OK
    .
Define Resource Estimate to Complete on Task
You can also define a resource's ETC on a task from the Schedule spreadsheet view. Enter hour or day ETC values depending on the
Default Unit
setting you defined in the
Defaults
tab of the
Options
dialog. If a task has an ETC value that exceeds zero, you cannot set the task status to
Completed
.
If the resource loading pattern is set to
Fixed,
you can only enter ETC in a tabulated view.
You can also remove a resource ETC on a task using this tab. If you are using Open Workbench with
Clarity PPM
 and you want to remove ETC that you have posted to a task that has not started, do this in
Clarity PPM
 by adjusting your posted timesheet.
If you are using Open Workbench with
Clarity PPM
, you must define a billing rate for cost-based resources in
Clarity PPM
. If the resource does not have a defined billing rate, in
Clarity PPM
, add an entry to the resource rate matrix and run the Rate Matrix Extraction job.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open a view that displays the task detail pane.
  2. Right-click a task and click
    Assignments
    in the shortcut menu.
  3. Enter ETC in the 
    Estimate
    field in the
    Assigned Resources
    grid, and click
    OK
    .
You can also define ETC on a task using this method.
Follow these steps:
  1. Select the Schedule view.
  2. Change the time scale data, if necessary, and complete one of the following steps:
    • Enter ETC in the non-time scaled ETC column to enter a total ETC value.
    • Enter ETC in the time scaled ETC column to enter ETC in a specific time period.
  3. Change the ETC format from Hours or Days to Cost for cost-based resources, such as expense resources, and save the project.
Define Resource Maximum Percentage on Tasks
The following procedure explains how to define a resource maximum percentage on a task.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open a view that displays the task detail pane.
  2. Right-click a task and click
    Assignments
    in the shortcut menu.
  3. Enter the maximum percentage amount in the
    Max %
    field in the
    Assigned Resources
    grid, and click
    OK
    .
    If necessary, use the scroll bar to view this field.
Release Resources from Task Assignments
When you release a resource from a task assignment, the resource is still available for assignment to other tasks in the project.
Follow these steps:
  1. Right-click a task and click
    Modify
    in the shortcut menu.
  2. Open the
    Resources
    tab.
  3. Select the resource assignment you want to release in the
    Assigned Resource
    grid, and click
    Release
    .
  4. Click
    OK
    .
Transfer Task Assignments between Resources
When you have resources of the same type assigned to work in your project, you can transfer those tasks from one resource to another on the project. You can choose to transfer all assigned work or specific tasks to a new resource.
When you transfer assignments:
  • If the resource from which you are transferring the assignment has not posted actuals on the task, the resource is removed from the task.
  • If the resource from which you are transferring the assignment has posted actuals on the task, the resource remains assigned to the task and the remaining ETC is transferred to the new resource.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open the
    Project
    ribbon.
  2. Click
    Transfer
    in the
    Assignments
    group.
  3. Select the name of the resource from the
    Transfer assignments from this resource
    drop-down list to transfer the assignment from.
  4. Select the task to transfer to the new resource in the task grid.
  5. Select the name of the resource from the
    to this resource
    drop-down list to transfer the assignment to.
  6. Complete one of the following steps:
    • Click the right arrow (>) to transfer the selected task from the assigned resource to the new resource.
    • Click the All right arrow (All >) to transfer all the listed assignments from the assigned resource to the new resource.
    • Click the left arrow (<) to transfer assignments from the resource listed in the
      to this resource
      drop-down list to the resource listed in the
      Transfer assignments from this resource
      drop-down list.
    • Click the All left arrow (All <) to transfer all assignments from the resource listed in the
      to this resource
      drop-down list to the resource listed in the
      Transfer assignments from this resource
      drop-down list.
  7. Click
    OK
    .
    Note:
    The Keep Baselines check box is selected by default. This setting transfers the original assignment baselines to the new resource. 
Define Dependency Relationships
A dependency provides you with a means of ordering the relationship, timing, and logical sequence between a task within the same project (internal dependency) or between a task in your project and a task that is external to the project (external dependency). When you create an external dependency, you add the subproject task to your master project. Creating dependencies does not automatically adjust your project plan; you must autoschedule your project.
A dependency links one task to another where the start or finish date of the second task (the successor) is constrained by the start or finish date of the first task (the predecessor). Define dependency relationships to ensure that you can evaluate the cascading impact of changes to tasks when autoscheduling. If a task is isolated and is not needed by or is not dependent on another task, it can be independent.
You can create the following types of dependencies to establish the relationship between the start and finish dates of dependent tasks:
  • Finish-Start. The predecessor task's finish date determines the successor task's earliest possible start date. With this dependency type, the successor task cannot start until its predecessor task finishes.
  • Finish-Finish. The predecessor task's finish date determines the successor task's earliest possible finish date. With this dependency type, the successor task cannot finish until its predecessor task finishes.
  • Start-Start. The predecessor task's start date determines the successor task's earliest possible start date. With this dependency type, the successor task cannot start until its predecessor task starts.
  • Start-Finish. The predecessor task's start date determines the successor task's earliest possible finish date. With this dependency type, the successor task cannot finish until its predecessor task starts.
The dependency type that is used when creating dependency links is the default dependency type you defined in the
Defaults
tab of the
Options
dialog. The default dependency type is
Finish-Start
. Once you create the dependency, you can edit the dependency type.
Task Dependencies Properties
Use the
Dependencies
tab on the
Task Properties
dialog to add or remove task dependencies. To view this tab, right-click the task in a view that displays the task detail pane, and click
Dependencies
in the shortcut menu.
This tab displays a hierarchical list of existing dependencies between the task you have selected and other tasks on the project. Use this tab to create, modify, or delete dependency relationships, and to review the task's name, relationship, dependency type, and the amount of lag. You can also apply dependencies to more than one task using this tab.
The
Dependencies
grid on this tab displays the following icons that you can use to identify the task's dependency relationships:
  • BOW--Predecessor--ICO Predecessor
    This icon indicates that the task is a predecessor to the selected task.
  • BOW--Successor--ICO Successor
    This
    icon indicates that the task is a successor to the selected task.
Lag and Negative Lag in Dependency Relationships
You can define the lag between tasks as positive or negative.
Lag
 is the predetermined amount of time between the start and/or finish time of two tasks in a project plan.
Negative Lag
is the amount of time or percentage of task duration in which two tasks can be simultaneously in process in a project plan. You define lag or negative lag on the
Dependencies
tab of the
Task Properties
dialog.
Example - Positive Lag
You have two tasks in your project, Task A and Task B, and you want Task B to start three days after Task A finishes. Define the dependency type as
Finish-Start
type and enter 3.00 as the lag.
Example - Negative Lag
You have two tasks in your project, Task A and Task B, and you want Task A to start two days before Task B ends. Define the dependency type as
Finish-Start
and enter -2.00 as the lag.
Internal Dependencies
An internal dependency is a dependency relationship that you create between two or more tasks in the same project.
Create Internal Task Dependencies
You can create and edit dependency relationships between tasks using different ways. You can create dependencies between tasks in the same project on Gantt charts, in spreadsheet views, and from a CPM network view to create internal task dependencies. Use the
Dependencies
tab on the
Task Properties
dialog to create dependencies.
You can create predecessor or successor dependency relationships in a spreadsheet view, only in a view that displays the task detail pane.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open a view that displays the task detail pane.
  2. Right-click the task for which you want to create a dependency relationship and click
    Dependencies
    in the shortcut menu.
  3. Click the task to which you want to create the dependency in the
    Project Tasks
    grid.
  4. Select the task from the hierarchy:
    • Press the
      Shift
      key on your keyboard and click a range of tasks to select a contiguous range of tasks.
    • Press and hold the
      Ctrl
      key on your keyboard and click the tasks to select a noncontiguous range of tasks.
  5. Complete one of the following steps to add task to the
    Dependencies
    grid:
    • Double-click the task.
    • Select a task and drag your selection into the
      Dependencies
      grid.
    • Select a task and click
      Add Predecessor
      or
      Add Successor
      .
    • Right-click a task and click
      Add Predecessor(s)
      or
      Add Successor(s)
      in the shortcut menu.
  6. Click
    OK
    .
Create Multiple Dependencies
You can create multiple dependencies between project tasks. You can add multiple predecessors for successors for a task or milestone or you can create a chain of dependencies.
Create Dependency Chains
As an alternative to individually creating dependency relationships, you can select multiple tasks simultaneously and can create a chain of predecessor-to-successor relationships. You can create in any spreadsheet view that displays the task detail pane.
You must have two or more tasks in a view to create a dependency chain.
Follow these steps:
  1. Select the task you want to designate as the predecessor.
  2. Press the
    Ctrl
    key on your keyboard and click each task that you want to make a successor.
  3. Right-click one of the selected tasks, and click
    Make Chain
    in the shortcut menu.
The following procedure explains how to create multiple predecessors for a task or milestone.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open a view that displays the task detail pane.
  2. Select the tasks you want to add as predecessor tasks.
    • Press the
      Shift
      key on your keyboard and click a range of tasks to select a contiguous range of tasks.
    • Press the
      Ctrl
      key and individually click tasks to select a non-contiguous range of tasks.
  3. Right-click the successor task, and click
    Make Successor
    in the shortcut menu.
  4. Right-click the successor task, and click
    Dependencies
    in the shortcut menu to verify your selection.
The following procedure explains how to create multiple successors for a task or milestone.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open a view that displays the task detail pane.
  2. Select the tasks you want to add as successor tasks.
  3. Right-click the predecessor task, and click
    Make Predecessor
    in the shortcut menu.
  4. Right-click the predecessor task, and click
    Dependencies
    in the shortcut menu to verify your selection.
Modify Internal Task Dependencies
The
Dependencies
tab on the
Task Properties
dialog displays dependency relationships for the selected task, including internal and external dependencies. You can use this tab to edit the dependency relationship and to add new dependency relationships.
If you specify percent as the lag type and
Finish-Finish
as the constraint type, you are specifying the percentage of the successor's duration. If you specify percent for any other constraint type, you are specifying the percentage of the predecessor's duration.
Overlap Tasks
If you want two tasks to be scheduled on the same day because the resource has remaining availability on that day, enter -1.00 as the lag to overlap the tasks.
Zero Lag
To schedule two dependent tasks, schedule first on one day and the next on the following day, enter zero as the lag amount.
Follow these steps:
  1. Right-click the task from the view and click
    Dependencies
    .
  2. Select the task you want to modify from the
    Project Tasks
    list, and modify the following fields:
    • Pred/Succ
      Specifies the task's dependency relationship.
      Default:
      Successor
      Options:
      Successor or Predecessor
    • Type
      Specifies the constraint type to be placed on the task's start or finish date.
      Default:
      Finish-Start
      Options:
      Start-Start, Start-Finish, Finish-Start, or Finish-Finish
    • Lag
      Defines the number that represents the days or percent to indicate the amount or time between, or overlapping, the task start or finish dates.
      The constraint type used is the type you specify.
    • Lag Type
      Specifies the lag type.
      Default:
      Daily
      Options:
      Daily or Percent
  3. Click
    OK
    .
Delete Internal Task Dependencies
When you remove an internal dependency relationship, you do not delete any tasks from the project. Instead, you delete the dependency link between the tasks. After removing the dependency, you can change the scheduling and run autoschedule.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open a view that displays the task detail pane.
  2. Right-click the task and click
    Dependencies
    in the shortcut menu.
  3. Select the task you want to delete from the
    Project Tasks
    list, and click
    Delete
    .
  4. Click
    OK
    .
External Dependencies
An external dependency is a constraint that you set outside of your project, such as a task on another project that defines when a task is completed. External dependencies are either predecessor or successor tasks on other projects.
If you are using Open Workbench with
Clarity PPM
, you can insert
Clarity PPM
 project tasks as external dependencies into a project you have open in Open Workbench.
You can view a list of external dependencies on the
External Dependencies
page. To view this page, select
Tools
,
External Dependencies
. The externally linked project (through the external task dependency) lists the linked task on its project plan.
You can also view externally linked dependencies in your project WBS list. Dependencies appear below the linked task with a
Linked Task
icon on the task's header button to indicate that it is an external task.
The
Linked Task
icon appears as follows:
  • BOW--Linked Task--ICO Linked Task
    The linked task icon indicates that the task is an externally linked task.
Create External Task Dependencies
Use the
External Dependencies
dialog to review or create an external dependency relationship with an external project task. When you create an external task dependency, the external task is inserted as a read-only task; the relationship appears in both projects. Only the external task is linked to the master project, not the entire subproject or project.
The
Dependencies
grid displays fields that define each external dependency. Use this grid to view external dependency details such as the external task name, whether it is a predecessor or successor task, dependency type, lag type, and the external project name. The
Project
field displays the selected dependency task's project name. The
Task
field displays the selected dependency's task name.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open a spreadsheet view that displays the task detail pane.
  2. Right-click the task to which you want to insert an external dependency, and click
    Insert External Dependency
    in the shortcut menu.
  3. Locate and select the project, and the task to which you want to create the dependency from the WBS on the right pane, and click
    Select
    .
Save Projects with External Dependencies
When you save a project, a copy of the external dependency data is also automatically added to the file. When you make changes to a task which impacts an external dependency, it is not updated in the project on which the task is dependent.
Modify External Task Dependencies
You can edit dependency relationships for external dependencies using the
Dependencies
tab on the
Task Properties
dialog or using the
External Dependencies
dialog. You cannot move the dates on external tasks or modify it within your project; the externally linked task's properties are read-only and do not include resource or dependency information.
You can only access the
Dependencies
tab on the
Task Properties
dialog if the externally dependent task has a predecessor relationship with the task in your project.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open the
    Projects
    ribbon.
  2. Click
    Dependencies
    in the
    External
    group.
  3. Locate the external dependency task you want to modify, and complete the following fields:
    • Pred/Succ
      Specifies the task's dependency relationship.
      Default:
      Successor
      Options:
      Successor or Predecessor
    • Type
      Specifies the constraint type to be placed on the task's start or finish date.
      Default:
      Finish-Start
      Options:
      Start-Start, Start-Finish, Finish-Start, or Finish-Finish
    • Lag
      Defines the number that represents the days or percent to indicate the amount or time between, or overlapping, the task start or finish dates.
      The constraint type used is the type you specify.
    • Lag Type
      Specifies the lag type.
      Default:
      Daily
      Options:
      Daily or Percent
  4. Click
    OK
    .
Delete External Task Dependencies
Use the
External Dependencies
dialog to delete external dependencies. When you delete an external dependency relationship, you do not delete the task from the project. Instead, you delete the dependency link between the tasks. After removing the dependency, you can change the project's scheduling and run autoschedule.
If you delete an external task from its originating project, which is an external dependency in a sub-project, the external dependency is removed from all of its related task records in all other projects.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open the
    Projects
    ribbon.
  2. Click
    Dependencies
    in the
    External
    group.
  3. Select the externally dependent task you want to delete, and click
    Delete
    .
Print Task Dependencies
You can print a list of all task dependencies associated with your project. Use the CPM Network view or a spreadsheet view that displays a Gantt chart to print dependency relationships.
Display Dependency Relationships
You can display dependency relationships on the
Dependencies
grid in the
Dependencies
tab of the
Task Properties
dialog or from a Gantt chart view.
Before you can create dependency relationships from a Gantt chart view, you should first be able to view the relationship in the Gantt chart. When you show dependencies, the Gantt chart area of the view displays connecting arrows between tasks that have dependency relationships.
To display the dependency, first add the
Task Name
or
Task ID
field name to the view definition and place the fields in a column preceding the
Type
,
Lag
,
Lag Type
, and
Project
columns.
Follow these steps:
  1. Double-click anywhere on the Gantt chart.
  2. Select the
    Show Dependencies
    check box.
  3. Click
    OK
    to display the established dependency relationships in the view.
Dependency Relationships Between Master Projects and Subprojects
If you work with master projects and subprojects, you can create dependency relationships between them. The method for creating dependencies between a master project and its subproject tasks is the same as that for creating dependencies between tasks in the same project. These relationships are reflected in the master project and the subproject's original project.
Define Advanced Properties
Use the
Advanced
tab on the
Task Properties
dialog to define a task's advanced management details, such as defining, removing, or editing task scheduling constraints. The
Advanced
tab provides a central location from where you can set or change task-related values. All of the task's attributes display on this tab.
This tab displays a
Fields
grid that contains the following columns:
  • Field. Displays a list of all the advanced properties you can specify.
  • Value. Displays cells, where you can enter or select values for the field. The field values that you can enter depend on the field you have selected. You can:
    • Select displayed check boxes.
    • Enter numeric values, currency, or dates.
    • Enter words or phrases.
    • Select options from drop-down lists.
The fields that are available for editing depend on your access rights. If a field is not available for selecting or editing, it is disabled (by default).
Follow these steps:
  1. Open a view that displays the task detail pane.
  2. Right-click a task and click
    Modify
    in the shortcut menu.
  3. Open the
    Advanced
    tab.
  4. Enter the values in the
    Value
    column for the following fields in the
    Fields
    grid.
     
    The value you can enter depends on the field you have selected.
    • % Complete
      Enter a value between 0 and 99 to identify the percentage of work that has been completed for a task. When the tasks are 100% complete, Open Workbench automatically inserts 100 into this field.
    • Actual % Spent
      Indicates the completeness of a task out of 100%.
    • ACWP
      Defines the actual cost of the work performed, which is the cost of the completed portion of assignments to a task based on the actual usage.
    • AV
      Defines the difference between the Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS) and the Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP).
    • BAC
      Defines the budget at completion, which is the budgeted cost of resource usage for the baseline plan.
    • Baseline Fixed Duration?
      Defines whether the baseline is set for a fixed duration.
    • BCWP
      Defines the budget cost of work performed. BCWP is the cost of the completed portion of a task based on baseline total usage. BCWP is also an earned value calculation.
    • BCWS
      Defines the budget cost of work scheduled, which is the cost of baseline total usage through the Project As-of date.
    • Category
      Defines the name of the group or class to which this task belongs.
    • EAC
      Defines the estimate at completion, which totals the cost incurred to date and the expected costs for incomplete tasks to give a projected figure.
    • Unplanned
      Defines whether the task is unplanned.
  5. Click
    OK
    .
Define the Scheduling Constraints for the Task
You can set the task scheduling constraints that impact autoschedule using the
Advanced
tab on the
Task Properties
dialog. Constraining tasks allows you to indicate when a task should start or finish during autoscheduling. Scheduling constraints can override priority during autoschedule but cannot override tasks that are locked for scheduling.
When defining task scheduling constraints, the
Start
constraint date indicates that the task starts at the beginning of the work day, and the
Finish
constraint date indicates that the task finishes at the end of the work day. Note the following when constraining tasks:
  • If a task's status is
    Started
    , the Start constraint date is read-only and you cannot edit it.
  • If a task's status is
    Completed
    , all constraint dates are read-only and you cannot edit them.
  • If a task is a summary task that constrains detail tasks, you cannot add the summary task constraints.
If a row in a column is gray, you cannot enter a value.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open a view that displays the task detail pane.
  2. Right-click the task you want to define scheduling constraints, and click
    Modify
    in the shortcut menu.
  3. Open the
    Advanced
    tab.
  4. Define the dates for the constraint types in the
    Constraints
    grid, and click
    OK
    :
    • Must Start On
      Defines the exact date on which the task must start. This date is always respected unless the task is locked to other dates or it causes a resource overload.
      This constraint overrides the
      Start No Earlier Than
      and the
      Start No Later Than
      constraint dates.
    • Start No Earlier Than
      Defines the date after which the task must start.
    • Start No Later Than
      Defines the date before which the task must start.
    • Must Finish On
      Defines the exact date on which the task must finish. This date is always respected unless the task is locked to other dates or it causes a resource overload.
      This constraint overrides the
      Finish No Earlier Than
      and the
      Finish No Later Than
      constraint dates.
    • Finish No Earlier Than
      Defines the date on or after which the task must finish.
    • Finish No Later Than
      Defines the date on or before which the task must finish.
Lock Tasks in Place
You may want to lock certain tasks or milestones in place to prevent scheduling functions, such as Recalculate or Autoschedule, from moving the task. Use the
Advanced tab
on the
Task Properties
dialog to lock a task. You can still shift a locked task's start date, finish date, or both dates in views that display a Gantt chart, such as the Gantt Chart view.
When you lock a task and you autoschedule your project, autoschedule does not move the ETC. If you have roles that are assigned to the locked tasks, ETC does not move and is in the past. The same is true for a resource that has not tracked current timesheets; the ETC spreads from the task's Start Date to the task's Finish Date, depending on the loading pattern.
You can override this lock by autoscheduling your project.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open a view that displays the task detail pane.
  2. Right-click the task and click
    Modify
    .
  3. Open the
    Advanced
    tab.
  4. Scroll down the
    Fields
    list and select the
    Lock for Scheduling?
    check box, and click
    OK
    .
View Task Percent Expended Amount
You can view a task's
% Expended
amount on the
Advanced
tab on the
Task Properties
dialog. Unlike
% Complete
,
% Expended
is a calculated field that represents the percentage of resource usage expended on a task. Because
% Expended
is calculated and can be more precise than
% Complete
, which is a user-defined value and is limited to 2 decimal places, earned value calculations such as BCWP may produce different results depending on which
% Complete
value you select.
Add Project, Task, and Resource Notes in Open Workbench
Notes
let you record project-specific information for yourself or for other staff members. You can view, add, edit, and remove notes. You can also change the notes categories, and see historical comments. The list of notes display in the History grid.
Use
Categories
to select and filter different groups and classes of tasks, notes, or resources in the view. You can enter new categories to the
Category
drop-down list or you can use the categories that are already listed. The categories listed are those that you added when you defined the Open Workbench general options.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open the
    Project Properties
    ,
    Task Properties
    , or the
    Resource Properties
    dialog.
  2. Open the
    Notes
    tab.
  3. Complete one of the following steps:
    • Add a note in the text box.
    • Select a note in the History grid.
  4. Enter or select a category with which the note is associated from the
    Category
    drop-down list.
    If you add a new notes category, specify a global file location to make it available for future use.
  5. Click
    Add
    and click
    OK
    .
  6. To edit, select the note you want to modify from the History grid, and click 
    Modify
     to complete one of the following steps:
  • To change the content of the note, change the data in the text field, and click 
    Modify
    .
  • To change the note's category, enter or select a category from the 
    Category
     drop-down list.
Delete Notes
Use the
Notes
tab on the
Project Properties
,
Task Properties
, and the
Resource Properties
dialogs to delete a note.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open the
    Project Properties
    ,
    Task Properties
    , or the
    Resource Properties
    dialog.
  2. Open the
    Notes
    tab.
  3. Select the note you want to delete from the
    History
    grid and click
    Delete
    .
  4. Click
    OK
    .
Assign Resources to Tasks in Open Workbench
As the project manager, you assign resources to tasks in Open Workbench (OWB). You can also assign resources to tasks from a view that displays the resource detail pane. Use this tab to apply properties to more than one task.
When you assign a resource to a key task, the ETC of the resource determines the Start and Finish dates.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open a view that displays the task detail pane.
  2. Right-click a task and click
    Assignments
    in the shortcut menu.
  3. Select the resource you want to assign to your task from the
    Project Resources
    grid, and click
    Assign
    .
  4. Click
    OK
    .
Set Resource Loading Patterns
A
loading pattern
defines how work is spread across the duration of a task. The loading pattern for a resource defines how resource assignments are used to complete tasks when you recalculate the task duration and you autoschedule your project. You have the following patterns available to help replicate how team members work on tasks.
You can assign resources to tasks using the following loading patterns. Use these loading patterns with autoschedule to produce a workable schedule automatically that allows for real-time variations in the way work is assigned and completed.
Use the
Loading
field on the
Resources
tab of the
Task Properties
dialog to set the loading pattern on a task for a resource.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open a view that displays the task detail pane.
  2. Right-click a task and click
    Assignments
    in the shortcut menu.
  3. Select the name of the resource in the
    Assigned Resources
    grid for which you want to set the loading pattern.
  4. Complete the
    Loading
    field in the grid, and click
    OK.
Uniform Loading Pattern
This pattern assigns resource time evenly across a task only on those days when the resource is available to meet the task requirements. For example, if a resource is scheduled to work four hours per day on a task, the resource will not be scheduled to work on that task on days when the resource is only available to work on the task for three hours. The maximum percentage and resource availability is taken into account when assigning resources to tasks using this loading pattern.
To use this loading pattern, set the maximum percentage of the resource on the task.
Front Loading Pattern
This pattern allocates resource usage as early in the task as possible. Resources are assigned to get work done as early as their availability permits. The maximum percentage of the resource on a task and the resource availability are taken into account when using this loading pattern.
To use this loading pattern, set the maximum percentage of the resource on the task.
This image illustrates a front loading pattern
Back Loading Pattern
This pattern allocates resource usage as late as possible in the task. Resources are assigned to get work done as late as their availability permits. The Max % and resource availability is taken into account when assigning resources to tasks using this loading pattern.
To use this loading pattern, set the maximum percentage of the resource on the task.
This image illustrates the back loading pattern
Fixed Loading Pattern
This pattern allocates resource usage to tasks according to your needs. Open Workbench automatically locks fixed resource assignments so that they are not changed when you autoschedule or when you recalculate task duration.
When you use this pattern, you can create a discontinuous task, or one that starts and stops, and then starts again. You can display the pattern in views where ETC is tabulated.
This image illustrates the fixed loading pattern
Contour Loading Pattern
This pattern fits resource loading around the remaining availability of the resource, smoothing out the peaks and valleys. This pattern is flexible and can appear as the reverse or mirror image of overlapping task patterns. The changes that you make to the task duration after it is scheduled causes resource assignments for each period to even out across the duration of the task.
This pattern assumes the characteristics of the Uniform loading pattern in the following cases:
  • Duration, start date, or finish date of a task changes
  • Autoschedule the task
  • Enter any new ETC values
This image illustrates the contour loading pattern
Track Resource Progress in Open Workbench
Track Resources by Total Actual Usage
You can record periodic actual usage using the
Resources
tab on the
Task Properties
dialog or by editing a view that displays the Actual field name.
Follow these steps:
  1. Open a view that displays the task detail pane.
  2. Select a task and click in the cell displaying total actual usage.
  3. Enter the total actual usage for each applicable cell on the timescale.
Track Resources by Periodic Actual Usage
Periodic recording of resource usage for every task to which a resource is assigned is the most comprehensive and accurate way to keep track of your project. Resources record actual usage by completing
Clarity PPM
 timesheets where the actual time each resource spends on a task is recorded at the end of a specific time period.
You can use the Gantt Chart view to track resource usage for all tasks to which a single resource is assigned. Use this view to track usage data for one resource across an entire project or group. When you use this view with the
Quick Filter by Resource
drop-down list, you can display data for one resource at a time.
Actual Cost of Resource Task Assignments
You can display the total actual cost data for resource task assignments in views. You must first add the
Actual Cost
field to your view layout. In the view definition, this field is available in the
Assignment To Tasks
and
All
subfolders of the
Resource Information
folder. You can format the
Actual Cost
field to display a single value or multiple time-scaled values.
The actual cost of a task assignment is used to determine the Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP) for a task, and is used to baseline costs for tasks and task assignments.
If you are using Open Workbench with
Clarity PPM
, the actual cost of a task assignment in Open Workbench is the total actual cost of the task assignment from
Clarity PPM
. This value is based on the actual work units posted against a resource assignment using timesheets, financial transactions, external schedulers, or XOG.
When building what-if scenarios using Actual Usage, the Actual Cost is calculated using the resource rate instead of actual work units. The following formula is used:
Actual Cost = Actual Usage * resource rate